Digestive Systems Of Humans, Earthworms, And Grasshoppers



The human, earthworm, and grasshopper digestive systems all have some similarities, as well as some differences. In the human digestive system, the process begins at the oral cavity (mouth). The mouth contains the teeth, tongue, and the salivary glands. The salivary glands contain saliva, salivary amylase, which breaks down starches into maltose, and mucus, which mixes with the food to form bolus. Chemical breakdown begins in the mouth.
The bolus is then swallowed and passes into the pharynx. The pharynx is the structure that contains the epiglottis, which is a flap like structure covering the larynx, and the esophagus. The bolus of food, moved by peristalsis, then enters the ...

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into maltose. Pepsinogen, which is an inactive enzyme, will change to pepsin, an active enzyme, when mixed with hydrochloric acid. Pepsin breaks down proteins, forming chains of amino acids called polypeptides. Chyme, a mixture of churned food, mucus, and digestive enzymes, is formed and will pass through the pyloric sphincter into the small intestine.
The small intestine is made up of three parts called the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. All three parts aid in peristalsis. They also help with the chemical breakdown of simple sugars, amino acids, vitamins, minerals, and fats. The villi, which is a finger like protrusion, contains veins, capillaries, and arteries. This is the site of absorption of nutrients, maltose, carbohydrates, and amino acids. Absorption occurs through the capillary beds. Brush borders, or multi villi, help the villi to increase absorption and surface area in the small intestine. The lacteal, also located in the small intestine, help with the absorption ...

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to be absorbed by the small intestine. The food is then moved into the large intestine.
The large intestine also contains villi, which helps increase absorption area as well. Three-fourths of the water is absorbed here, which prevents dehydration. Vitamin absorption also occurs. Vitamin K is produced by bacteria along with vitamin B. The waste is then removed by peristalsis.
The waste moves into the rectum, where the fecal matter is stored temporarily. Feces contain a mixture of mucus, bacteria, dead cells, cellulose, and bile. The waste passes through the anal sphincter, through the anus and into the outside, completing the digestive system.
The digestive system of the ...

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PAPER DETAILS
Added: 2/27/2004 02:09:04 AM
Category: Science & Nature
Type: Premium Paper
Words: 1293
Pages: 5

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