Evolution Of Immunity And The Invertebrates



"Article Summery" Name: "Immunity and the Invertebrates" Periodical: Scientific
Pages Read: 9
The complex immune systems of humans and other mammals evolved over
quite a long time - in some rather surprising ways. In 1982 a Russian zoologist
named Elie Metchnikoff noticed a unique property of starfish larva. When he
inserted a foreign object through it's membrane, tiny cells would try to ingest
the invader through the process of phagocytosis. It was already known that
phagocytosis occurred in specialized mammal cells but never in something less
complex like a starfish. This discovery led him to understand that phagocytosis
played a much broader role, it was a fundamental mechanism of ...

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cells. The second job is to eliminate the non-
self cells. When a foreign object enters the body, several things happen. Blood
stops flowing, the immunity system begins to eliminate unwanted microbes with
phagocytic white blood cells. This defensive mechanism is possessed by all
animals with an innate system of immunity. Innate cellular immunity is believed
to be the earliest form of immunity. Another form of innate immunity is
complement, composed of 30 different proteins of the blood.
If these mechanisms do not work to defeat an invader, vertebrates rely
on another response: acquired immunity. Acquired immunity is mainly dealt by
specialized white blood cells called lymphocytes. Lymphocytes travel throughout
the blood and lymph glands waiting to attack molecules called antigens.
Lymphocytes are made of two classes: B and T. B lymphocytes release antibodies
while T help produce antibodies and serve to recognize antigens. Acquired
Immunity is highly effective but takes days to ...

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Evolution Of Immunity And The Invertebrates. (2004, January 3). Retrieved May 24, 2018, from http://www.essayworld.com/essays/Evolution-Of-Immunity-And-The-Invertebrates/882
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PAPER DETAILS
Added: 1/3/2004 03:17:26 AM
Category: Science & Nature
Type: Free Paper
Words: 1152
Pages: 5

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