Urban Transportation Alternati


Recently I went on an adventure around Europe and visited three major cities: Paris; Amsterdam; and Berlin. Throughout my travels I used many different forms of transport to get around including trains, buses, cars, ferries, and my own two feet. It was such a central theme to my adventure that I decided to research transportation within urban areas for this report.
It has long been a challenge to human kind to get from point A to point B. In the early days of humanity, people were limited to there feet. With the advent of the wheel, transportation became faster and saved time, therefore leaving more time for other activities. It also enabled people to go much greater distances. ...

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and beyond. However, motorised transportation is not only used in long distance travel, most automobile transportation takes place within urban and suburban centres. As the rate of urbanisation increased over the last century, so did the use of automobiles. Now there are more than 540 million automobiles on the roads of the world with most of these being in the developed countries 1 . Unfortunately cars cause problems, especially when there are many cars in one area such as an urban centre. These problems include, air pollution, noise pollution, and traffic congestion to name but a few. To solve these problems there must be a shift away from car-focussed urban centres and an increase in car alternatives such as bicycles and public transportation. An understanding of the current social and environmental problems in regards to cars must be achieved before feasible solutions can be offered.
Cars have become a common luxury in modern cities throughout the world. Being a vehicle of ...

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on many things such as human health, damage to buildings and other structures, and harms crops and vegetation in the surrounding area . There are a few main classes of pollutants that are mainly emitted by the transport sector. The first of these is carbon oxides (both carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide). The production of carbon monoxide comes from the incomplete burning of fossil fuels and exacerbates and causes many different diseases. Up to 90% of carbon monoxide emissions from non-natural origin come from the transport sector . Catalytic converters have helped to stabilise the emissions of carbon monoxide throughout the world . Carbon dioxide is responsible for a smaller ...

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PAPER DETAILS
Added: 8/16/2006 03:56:01 PM
Category: Miscellaneous
Type: Premium Paper
Words: 1934
Pages: 8

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