The Earth and Its Peoples 3rd edition CHP 23 outline

Chapter 23 Outline

?. Independence in Latin America 1800-1830
• Spain and Portugal held vast colonial possessions.
• Iberian empires had reformed their colonial administration and strengthened their military forces.

A. Roots of Revolution to 1810
• Elites and middle classes were frustrated by the political and economic power of colonial officials and angered by high taxes and imperial monopolies.
• Large number of residents in Spanish America favored Junta Central and a vocal minority objected.
• Spanish official’s harsh repression further polarized public opinion and gave rise to a greater sense of a separate American nationality.

B. Spanish South America ...

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of both the monarch and church.
• With Kings supporters divided, momentum swung to the patriots.
• Patriot leaders in Buenos Aires at first sought to retain control over the territory of the Viceroyalty of Rio de la Plata.
• A weak succession of Juntas, collective presidencies and dictators soon lost control over much of the interior of Argentina.

C. Mexico 1810-1823
• In 1810 Mexico was Spain’s wealthiest and most populous colony.
• Spaniards dominated the government, church, and economy.
• Wealthy ranchers and farmers had aggressively forced many Amerindian Communities from their traditional agricultural lands.
• Hidalgo was captures, tried and executed in 1811.
• Jose Maria Morelos, Priest, student of Hidalgos was a more adept military and political leader than his mentor.

D. Brazil to 1831
• Arrival of the Portuguese royal family in Brazil in 1808 helped maintain the loyalty of the colonial elite and stimulate the local economy.
• In 1820 the military ...

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proved to be another significant stumbling block to the creation of constitutional governments in Latin America.

B. Personalist leaders
• Successful patriot leaders gained mass followings during the wars for independence; they recruited and modified popular support by using patriotic symbols and by carefully associating their actions with national objectives.
• Personalist leaders relied on their ability to mobilize and direct the masses of these new nations rather than on the authority of constitutions and laws.
• A Personalist leader who gained and held political power without constitutional sanction was called a Caudillo.
• Personalist politics were more influential in ...

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Added: 3/28/2011 09:34:57 PM
Submitted By: Beccies
Category: Book Reports
Type: Premium Paper
Words: 1688
Pages: 7

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