Green Aid in India and Zimbabwe - Conserving Whose Community?

Green Aid in India and Zimbabwe - Conserving Whose Community?


Abstract

What happens when global institutions try to assist community conservation in some of the world's least industrialised areas? Among the `cutting edge' projects grant-aided by the Global Environment Facility (GEF, a World Bank-hosted fund for `global environmental benefits') are `CAMPFIRE' - the Communal Areas Management Programme For Indigenous Resources - in Zimbabwe, and `India Ecodevelopment'. Both are intended to combine protection of biodiverse wildlife with participatory rural development for impoverished local communities. We explore the `ground truths' of these projects in their historical and political ...

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the GEF is an innovative multilateral aid fund to channel `incremental' finance for `global environmental benefits', i.e. to pay the extra costs of making aid projects compatible with treaties on climate change and biodiversity, `thereby... contributing to sustainable development' (GEF, 1994).

This formal language is spoken in global institutions and at international fora: far away from most of the people and places invoked in the World Bank's publications. To implement global values in local situations, environmental professionals might be expected to bridge this geographical, cultural and socio-economic gap. Yet civil servants, academics and NGOs are unelected groups taking public money for projects and consultancy. Is this elite international community able to bring global governance and grassroots realities together both fairly and effectively?

Even before Blaikie and Brookfield introduced the field to a wider audience, studies of interventions in `political ecology' ...

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in differing ways, these projects both aim to combine decentralised rural development with community participation in the management of globally valued natural resources. Yet echoing Neumann (1995) in the context of Tanzania, these links are shaped - often unbalanced - by differing access to power and resources, also the ethnicity and geographical position of the peoples involved.

Even the process of writing this paper shows up some of the differences. Two students at the University of Hull's Department of Geography originally drafted this paper: a British PhD student, Zoe Young, examined `India Ecodevelopment' in Nagarhole, South India, and a Zimbabwean Masters student, George Makoni, ...

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"Green Aid in India and Zimbabwe - Conserving Whose Community?." Essayworld.com. May 18, 2013. Accessed October 18, 2018. http://www.essayworld.com/essays/Green-Aid-India-Zimbabwe-Conserving-Whose/102684.
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PAPER DETAILS
Added: 5/18/2013 10:43:56 AM
Submitted By: ewt42t2t
Category: Economics
Type: Premium Paper
Words: 9838
Pages: 36

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