Household Registration or Hukou System

The majority of migrant workers who flock to bigger cities in search of manual labor in factories and on construction sites are from a farming background.

But their search for a better life for themselves and their families is hampered by a discriminatory "household registration," or hukou, system that limits access to services like healthcare and education to natives of a given area.

Kaiming, who directs the Institute of Contemporary Observation in the southern city of Shenzhen, said "Although there have been reforms to the hukou system in China's small and medium-sized cities, the threshold for migrant populations to transfer their hukou to first-tier cities like Beijing, Shanghai ...

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than those for rural migrants. the returns to education are the highest for formal contract jobs, followed by the jobs without contracts, and then the self-employed. Incomes also differ according to gender, marital status, and age. Earnings for women are significantly lower than those of men. The gap is larger for the self-employed than for the formally employed and workers without a formal labour contract, but there are only small differences in coefficients among urban residents, rural migrants, and urban migrants along gender lines.

Using these results, an OB decomposition is computed between rural migrants and urban residents. If the type of employment sector is not taken into account, nearly all of the income gap (97%) between rural migrants and urban residents can be attributed to differences in observed individual characteristics. If we use an alternative counterfactual income (the explained share will decrease, but still as high as 70%. Running separate OB decompositions ...

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Household Registration or Hukou System. (2018, May 7). Retrieved February 15, 2019, from
"Household Registration or Hukou System.", 7 May. 2018. Web. 15 Feb. 2019. <>
"Household Registration or Hukou System." May 7, 2018. Accessed February 15, 2019.
"Household Registration or Hukou System." May 7, 2018. Accessed February 15, 2019.
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Added: 5/7/2018 12:30:19 PM
Submitted By: najlaasm
Category: Asian Studies
Type: Premium Paper
Words: 990
Pages: 4

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