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How Valence Electrons And Orbitals Form A Covalent Bond - College Essay

How Valence Electrons And Orbitals Form A Covalent Bond

Chemical Bonding Assignment

Describe the requirements for valence electrons and orbitals to form a covalent bond between two approaching atoms.

For valence electrons/orbitals to form a covalent bond between two approaching atoms, they first and foremost must have only one electron in the orbital(s) that will be participating in any bonding; for example, elemental hydrogen is able to form H2 because of its half filled 1s orbital, but helium cannot do the same as its 1s orbital is full. Secondly, the two valence orbitals must be able to overlap, so that this new combined orbital will share the same space of the old two, while containing two electrons of opposite spin. Now that this ...

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geometry. So, there are four sp3 hybrid orbitals forming sigma bonds, each attaching the central carbon to a chlorine atom.

BeI2s

In BeI2, there is only single bonding with an AX2, linear geometry. So, there are two 2sp hybrid orbitals forming sigma bonds in this molecule, each connecting the central beryllium to an iodine atom.

BH3g

BH3 is AX3, trigonal planar with only single bonds. So, there are three sp2 hybrid orbitals forming sigma bonds, each connecting a hydrogen to the central boron atom.

SiH4g

SiH4 has AX4, tetrahedral geometry with only single bonds. There are four sp3 hybrid orbitals forming sigma bonds between the silicon and each individual hydrogen atom.

[4 A]

Describe the types of orbital overlaps that can form a sigma bond vs. a pi bond.

While sigma bonds and pi bonds are both subsets of covalent bonding, they differ in the location of the bond and in the types of orbital overlaps that can form in each. Sigma bonds form end-to-end ...

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pyramidal geometry. This geometry would allow the molecule to be polar if there was a net dipole, however, there are no polar bonds. Therefore, NCl3 is nonpolar.

CCl4 has four C-Cl bonds with electronegativity differences of 0.5, making them polar, polar-covalent bonds. The molecule has AX4, tetrahedral geometry. Despite all four bonds being polar, they cancel each other out due to the molecule's geometry, so there is no net dipole. Therefore, CCl4 is also nonpolar.

[4 A, 2 C]

Ionic compounds and metals have different physical properties because of the different forces involved. For example, while sodium chloride and nickel have nearly identical molar masses, their melting ...

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Added: 7/19/2020 11:35:29 AM
Submitted By: coronatime
Category: Science & Nature
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