Poliovirus infects human cells by binding to an immunoglobulin-like receptor, CD155, (also known as the poliovirus receptor (PVR))[9][10] on the cell surface.[11] Interaction of poliovirus and CD155 facilitates an irreversible conformational change of the viral particle necessary for viral entry.[12][13] The precise mechanism poliovirus uses to enter the host cell has not been firmly established.[14] Attached to the host cell membrane, entry of the viral nucleic acid was thought to occur one of two ways: via the formation of a pore in the plasma membrane through which the RNA is then “injected” into the host cell cytoplasm, or that the virus is taken up by receptor-mediated endocytosis.[15] ...

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translated by the host cell. On entry the virus hijacks the cell's translation machinery; causing inhibition of cellular protein synthesis in favor of virus–specific protein production. Unlike the host cell's mRNAs the 5' end of poliovirus RNA is extremely long—over 700 nucleotides—and is highly structured. This region of the viral genome is called internal ribosome entry site (IRES) and it directs translation of the viral RNA. Genetic mutations in this region prevent viral protein production.[18][19][20]

Poliovirus mRNA is translated as one long polypeptide. This polypeptide is then auto-cleaved by internal proteases into approximately 10 individual viral proteins, including:[4][17]

The genomic structure of poliovirus type 1[8] (see text or reference for further details).3Dpol, an RNA dependent RNA polymerase whose function is to copy and multiply the viral RNA genome.

2Apro and 3Cpro/3CDpro, proteases which cleave the viral polypeptide.

VPg (3B), a small protein that ...

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coxsackie A viruses, to CD155; leading to a change in pathogenicity, and allowing the virus to infect nervous tissue.

There are three serotypes of poliovirus, PV1, PV2 , and PV3; each with a slightly different capsid protein. Capsid proteins define cellular receptor specificity and virus antigenicity. PV1 is the most common form encountered in nature, however all three forms are extremely infectious.[5] Wild polioviruses can be found in approximately 10 countries. PV1 is highly localized to regions in India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Egypt, but following outbreaks of poliomeyletis in 2003–2004 it remains widespread in West and Central Africa. Wild poliovirus type 2 has probably been ...

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Poliovirus. (2011, March 19). Retrieved November 29, 2020, from http://www.essayworld.com/essays/Poliovirus/96343
"Poliovirus." Essayworld.com. Essayworld.com, 19 Mar. 2011. Web. 29 Nov. 2020. <http://www.essayworld.com/essays/Poliovirus/96343>
"Poliovirus." Essayworld.com. March 19, 2011. Accessed November 29, 2020. http://www.essayworld.com/essays/Poliovirus/96343.
"Poliovirus." Essayworld.com. March 19, 2011. Accessed November 29, 2020. http://www.essayworld.com/essays/Poliovirus/96343.
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Added: 3/19/2011 08:25:47 PM
Submitted By: set123
Category: Diseases & Disorders
Type: Premium Paper
Words: 1358
Pages: 5

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