Superconductivity


INTRODUCTION
We've all heard about . But, do we all know what it is?
How it works and what are its uses? To start talking about , we
must try to understand the how "normal" conductivity works. This will make it
much easier to understand how the "super" part functions. In the following
paragraphs, I will explain how superconductivity works, some of the current
problems and some examples of its uses.

CONDUCTIVITY
Conductivity is the ability of a substance to carry electricity. Some
substances like copper, aluminium, silver and gold do it very well. They are
called conductors. Others conduct electricity partially and they are called
semi-conductors. The concept of electric transmission ...

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levels and between different materials but to do that,
they require the right amount of energy and an "empty" slot in the band they
enter. The metallic conductors have a lot of these slots and this is where the
free electrons will head when voltage (energy) is applied. A simpler way to look
at this is to think of atoms aligned in a straight line (wire). if we add an
electron to the first atom of the line, that atom would have an excess of
electrons so it releases an other electron which will go to the second atom and
the process repeats again and again until an electron pops out from the end of
the wire. We can then say that conduction of an electrical current is simply
electrons moving from one empty slot to another in the atoms' outer shells.
The problem with these conductors is the fact that they do not let all the
current get through. Whenever an electric current flows, it encounters some
resistance, which changes the electrical energy into heat. This is what causes
the ...

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and at
which all resistance stops short.) Kelvin believed that electrons travelling in
a conductor would come to a complete stop as the temperature got close to
absolute zero. But others were not so sure. Kelvin was wrong. The colder it gets,
the less the lattice shakes, making it easier for electrons to get through.
There's one theory that explains best what happens in a superconducting wire:
When a conductor is cooled to super low temperatures, the electrons travelling
inside it would join up in some way and move as a team. The problem with this
notion was that electrons carry negative charges and like charges repel. This
repulsion would prevent the electrons from forming their ...

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PAPER DETAILS
Added: 11/7/2004 02:37:53 AM
Category: Science & Nature
Type: Premium Paper
Words: 1633
Pages: 6

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