The Rise Of Communism In Russia



"Unless we accept the claim that LeninŐs coup dŐŽtat gave birth to an
entirely new state, and indeed to a new era in the history of mankind, we must
recognize in todayŐs Soviet Union the old empire of the Russians -- the only
empire that survived into the mid 1980's" (Luttwak, 1).
In their Communist Manifesto of 1848, Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels
applied the term communism to a final stage of socialism in which all class
differences would disappear and humankind would live in harmony. Marx and
Engels claimed to have discovered a scientific approach to socialism based on
the laws of history. They declared that the course of history was determined
by the clash of opposing forces ...

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takeoff, originated in the
West. Designed in France and Germany, it was brought into Russia in the middle
of the nineteenth century and promptly attracted support among the country's
educated, public-minded elite, who at that time were called intelligentsia
(Pipes, 21). After Revolution broke out over Europe in 1848 the modern working
class appeared on the scene as a major historical force. However, Russia
remained out of the changes that Europe was experiencing. As a socialist
movement and inclination, the Russian Social-Democratic Party continued the
traditions of all the Russian Revolutions of the past, with the goal of
conquering political freedom (Daniels 7).
As early as 1894, when he was twenty-four, Lenin had become a
revolutionary agitator and a convinced Marxist. He exhibited his new faith and
his polemical talents in a diatribe of that year against the peasant-oriented
socialism of the Populists led by N.K. Mikhiaiovsky (Wren, 3).
While Marxism had been ...

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seized upon the label "Bolshevik" (Russian for
Majority), while his opponents who inclined to the "soft" or more democratic
position became known as the "Mensheviks" or minority (Daniels, 19).
Though born only in 1879, Trotsky had gained a leading place among the
Russian Social-Democrats by the time of the Second party Congress in 1903. He
represented ultra-radical sentiment that could not reconcile itself to Lenin's
stress on the party organization. Trotsky stayed with the Menshevik faction
until he joined Lenin in 1917. From that point on, he acomidated himself in
large measure to Lenin's philosophy of party dictatorship, but his reservations
came to the surface again in ...

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PAPER DETAILS
Added: 8/26/2005 02:05:29 PM
Category: Government
Type: Free Paper
Words: 2368
Pages: 9

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