The Worlds Fight Against Microbes



Many infectious diseases that were nearly eradicated from the
industrialized world, and newly emerging diseases are now breaking out all over
the world due to the misuse of medicines, such as antibiotics and antivirals,
the destruction of our environment, and shortsighted political action and/or
inaction.
Viral hemorrhagic fevers are a group of diseases caused by viruses from
four distinct families of viruses: filoviruses, arenaviruses, flaviviruses, and
bunyaviruses. The usual hosts for most of these viruses are rodents or
arthropods, and in some viruses, such as the Ebola virus, the natural host is
not known. All forms of viral hemorrhagic fever begin with fever and muscle
aches, and ...

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hemorrhagic fever in humans and animals, and
because of this they are extremely hazardous. Laboratory studies of these
viruses must be carried out in special maximum containment facilities, such as
the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) in Atlanta, Georgia and the United States
Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID), at Fort
Detrick in Frederick, Maryland (CDC I,II).
The Ebola hemorrhagic fever in humans is a severe, systemic illness
caused by infection with Ebola virus. There are four subtypes of Ebola virus
(Ebola-Zaire, Ebola-Sudan, Ebola-Ivory Coast, and Ebola-Reston), which are not
just variations of a single virus, but four distinct viruses. Three of these
subtypes are known to cause disease in humans, and they are the Zaire, Sudan,
and Ivory Coast subtypes. Out of all the different viral hemorrhagic fevers
known to occur in humans , those caused by filoviruses have been associated with
the highest case-fatality rates. These rates can be as high ...

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and 22 deaths. Three additional
outbreaks were identified and reported between 1994 and 1996: a large outbreak
in Kikwit, Zaire with 316 cases and 244 deaths; and two smaller outbreaks in the
Ivory Coast and Gabon. Each one of these outbreaks occurred under the
challenging conditions of the developing world. These conditions including a
lack of adequate medical supplies and the frequent reuse of needles, played a
major part in the spread of the disease. The outbreaks were controlled quickly
when appropriate medical supplies were made available and quarantine procedures
were used (CDC I).
Ebola-Reston, the fourth subtype, was discovered in 1989. The virus was
found in monkeys imported ...

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PAPER DETAILS
Added: 9/20/2008 07:24:51 AM
Category: Health & Medicine
Type: Premium Paper
Words: 2210
Pages: 9

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