Industrial Revolution


Prior to the 18th century, in the United States and Western Europe, the majority of the population lived on farms. However, during the 1700’s many remarkable new innovations came into being which caused an upheaval of sorts. “New forms of power, such as steam, replaced animal strength and human muscle. The factory system of making goods came into use. All of these advances affected patterns of living as well as working. Because society was so transformed, this time of great change is known as the .” (Perry, Scholl, Davis…491) The brought upon many changes in society. Prior to the , the United States had established an agrarian society and soon, the would lead to rapid urbanization. There ...

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conditions of roads led to the building of canals. It was far less costly to transport heavy goods by waterway than by land. (491) Railroads, at the time, were the fastest method of transportation on land. A trip that might take days would only be a few hours by train. Railroads would also aid in trafficking raw materials, machinery, and finished products from north to south in far less time. A demand for better methods of transportation would lead to more innovative designs in the field of transportation. One of the greatest problems that existed in the South was “how to produce enough cotton to meet the demands of England's newly invented spinning and weaving machines?” (Compton’s Encyclopedia, Eli Whitney) There were two types of cottons grown on plantations: “A black-seed, long-staple cotton was easily cleaned, but it grew only near the coast, while a green-seed, short-staple variety grew in inland areas but resisted cleaning since its fiber stuck to the seed.” (Compton’s) ...

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that would be powered by a steam engine. (50-51) In time, “The spinning wheel started to become obsolete, a steam-powered factory had been established.” (51) Despite the fact that steam-powered factories started out as a financial disaster, “Powered machines grouped in factories replaced home industries.” (51) In 1769, James Watt was recognized as developing the first practical steam engine that burned coal. (Perry…493) “While repairing a model of a Newcomen-type engine for Glasgow University, Watt realized that a large quantity of heat was being wasted by successfully heating the cylinder to fill it with steam and cooling it to condense the steam. Watt solved this problem.” In his own ...

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Added: 3/17/2004 11:16:57 PM
Category: Political Science
Type: Premium Paper
Words: 1424
Pages: 6

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